Sigmund Freud, ‘Beyond the Pleasure Principle’, in Freud, F.R. This was mostly developed from Eliot’s early criticism ( the essays in The Sacred Wood, 1920, and ‘The Metaphysical Poets’, 1921) with its emphasis on the internal integrity of the literary text and its vision of cultural rejuvenation tied to a grand and sweeping vision of the search to restore a ‘unified‘ sensibility in the modern world. 195–203, 200. Snow argued that intellectual life was divided between two cultures, and that these divisions were contributing to Britain’s economic and national decline. . In this discipline-hopping, he followed the model of his early mentor, I. What placed science and literature, specifically, at the heart of the debate that erupted in the late 1950s between Snow and Leavis, was in part related to this complex history; in part, bound up with Snow’s defensive position as a traditional (ie. Indeed, most chapters of my book begin by relating a dispute that might initially appear disciplinary, only to show how those differences were themselves part of more complicated conflicts. F.R. The dance hall was one place where bodies were massed together. More. Leavis, ‘The Responsible Critic: Or the Function of Criticism at Any Time’, in Leavis, Roy Johnson, quoted in ibid., p.154. The essay “Literature and Society” is basically a substance of an address given by the author to the students’ Union of the London School of Economics and politics. Or There Is Only One Culture’, in Leavis, Palgrave Literature & Performing Arts Collection, Literature, Cultural and Media Studies (R0). Leavis, ‘T. His views on society and education are expounded in Mass Civilization and Minority Culture (1933) and Education and the University (1943). Leavis, ‘Marxism and Cultural Continuity’, preface to, Iain Wright, ‘F.R. Prose and poetry also provide a way to express emotions, raise questions and build critical thinking skills. Where the book fails is in its obsession with the need to ‘dislodge’ or demolish the category of ‘the two cultures’ as a disciplinary contest in order to explore its historical subtexts. These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. The ‘self-contained immediacy [of] the work of art’, Georg Lukács ‘Art and Objective Truth’ quoted in Raman Selden (ed.). F.R. The difference is one of interpretation and argument, which is why it is unfortunate that Waugh devoted her review to presenting her own narrative rather than engaging with my evidence. In a later lecture, Leavis denied that there had ever been a debate and that it was simply ‘absurd to posit a culture that the scientist has qua scientist’. 97–115, 110. Literary theory is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for literary analysis. Although the book unearths little that is not already known about the life of F. R. Leavis, it does dust off and add significant detail to some forgotten chapters in that of C. P. Snow and his various associates. . Unable to display preview. An illustration of text ellipses. Whereas, 30 years ago, they might have managed ‘a frozen smile across the gulf’ (2), the two cultures now stare at each other with mutual hostility and dislike. Crucially, she misunderstands my argument against the adoption of the ‘two cultures’ framework, believing it to deny the disciplinary dimensions of the episode entirely. Download preview PDF. A. Richards and the American New Critics) and refined over a 30-year career as a founding father of Cambridge English and modern literary criticism; a thesis therefore entirely familiar to many of his academic contemporaries: that in a society like the present where the advances of science and technology threaten a future of momentous and ‘insidious’ change, ‘mankind ... will need to be in full intelligent possession of its full humanity ... a basic living deference towards that to which, opening as it does into the unknown and itself unmeasurable, we know we belong’. Indeed, not only do I acknowledge the disciplinary stakes of the debate, but I situate Snow and Leavis within a longer such history: ‘[T]he encounter between Snow and Leavis is part of a longer tradition discussing the relationship between the arts and the sciences – a tradition that also includes the exchange between Arnold and Huxley in the 1880s, and the so-called “science wars” of the 1990s’ (p. 25). Patricia Waugh’s review illustrates the allure, but also the limitations, of an interpretation of the ‘two cultures’ controversy as a conflict between two disciplinary cultures. More noticeably perhaps, in this later contest, the battle-lines were evidently non-reducible to strict disciplinary boundaries, though in the eyes of most of the scientists at the centre of the debate, the humanities tout court were identified as relativists and nihilists, whilst the scientists identified themselves with the ideals of Enlightenment, progress and modernity. . But no major discussion of the relation between the arts, humanities and sciences has since proceeded without some positioning of itself in relation to the conceptual space set up by Snow’s phrase. Leavis’s real indictment of Snow, and the reason for the seemingly excessive and eccentric attack on his literary style, was that Snow was regarded by Leavis as not even capable of recognising the significance of what he was incapable of grasping.
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