The δ13C and δ15N values of zooplankton varied from −21.4 to −20.5‰ and from +4.2 to +7.6‰, respectively. The heat stimulates chemical reactions that pull in minerals and chemicals from the rocks, … Further evidence for hydrothermal vents as the source of abiogenesis is the abundance of life that lives around them today. You may want to use resources from Which organisms are both secondary and tertiary consumers in this food web? Our results indicated that the chemosynthetic and photosynthetic productions contributed nearly equally to the food web… food webs at hydrothermal vents is to develop better predictions of community resilience to disturbance and the relationships between community structure and ecosystem function, including productivity and nutrient cycling. The δ13C values of red macroalgae (Gelidiopsis sp.) Hydrothermal vents can be active (with plumes) or inactive, living within and around the vents hundreds of species including crabs, shrimps, fish, and octopus as well as sessile creatures such as barnacles, limpets, feather stars, and tube worms. These chemoautotrophic microbes efficiently sustain vent communities via bacteria–invertebrate symbioses or heterotrophic consumption, rendering deep-sea vent ecosystems analogous to oases in the desert . Such a 15N-depleted isotope composition can likely be attributed to the pronounced bacterial NH4+ assimilation by autotrophic microorganisms , which can generate a nitrogen isotopic fractionation an order of magnitude larger than N2 fixation or NO3- assimilation (ca. However, the difference in the mean δ15N value between these two primary consumers and seawater POM was only ca. ~r9����ؙ�YrGEXO�W)��*��Ɯ >���=����&�hժU�A7�r��weM��#��3�蔕�r��;��aﲋ�c�xp��q�ʍ�7~�8����W]����Հ�?>�8|���7�z��͛7��0�z�ߍ?�ݻ�����y����yH. Using stable isotopes and quantitative community characteristics to determine a local hydrothermal vent food web D. Bergquist , J. Eckner , +4 authors C. Fisher Biology The isotopic pattern suggests a close prey–predator relationship between suspension feeders and these fundamental species. were mainly distributed within 50 to 100 m from the vent center, except for one colony observed at a site 10 m from the vent center in the NW transect. were collected, respectively. One of the vents (N24° 50.054', E121° 57.714'; water depth of ca. Yes Epibenthic crustaceans, including mysids, amphipods, and krill, which have never been reported in other shallow-water vent ecosystems, had δ13C values closer to the vent POM than zooplankton had. Both epibenthic crustaceans and zooplankton showed little difference (less than 5%) in their dietary compositions between venting and non-venting areas. −17 and +8‰, respectively. 10 m) with continuous discharge of whitish fluids and sulfur deposited at the venting peripheral was chosen as the center for our sampling campaign conducted in August and September of 2015. The bacteria are able to release the energy in hydrogen sulfide so it can be utilized by organisms living around the vent. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0204753.g005. exhibited slightly larger isotopic variations than corals with the δ13C and δ15N values varying from −20.7 to −18.7‰ and from +7.9 to +9.7‰, respectively. Writing – review & editing, Affiliations Yes What is visual communication and why it matters; Nov. 20, 2020. Distinct from their deep-sea counterparts, shallow-water hydrothermal vents occur in coastal euphotic zones. Apparently, the enrichment of 13C in vent POM could also be derived from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with a higher δ13C value. 4 L) were collected from the venting orifice using a titanium pipe connected with a Teflon pipe and a pre-vacuumed sterile bottle. KST is located ca. 20‰ versus 0 to 5‰ [47,48]). Their major food items were composed of green macroalgae (44 ± 6% for E. contractus and 32 ± 6% for A. misera), corpses of epibenthic crustaeans (35 ± 4% for E. contractus and 40 ± 3% for A. misera), and zooplankton (21 ± 2% for E. contractus and 27 ± 4% for A. misera) (Fig 6B and 6C). The emitted fluids are CO2-rich, extremely acidic (the lowest recorded pH in the world of 1.52 and 2.77 on average ) and hot (temperatures between 48°C and 116°C ). Writing – original draft, Affiliation Therefore, potential diet items for each consumer species selected for the mixing model computation were referred to the feeding habit revealed in our plot of δ13C and δ15N values and described in the literature, e.g., for E. contractus  and X. testudinatus [16,19]. Our data indicated that zooplankton and epibenthic crustaceans acted as fundamental consumers mediating the transfer of both chemosynthetic and photosynthetic energy to the higher trophic levels. Writing – review & editing, Affiliations Gratitude in the workplace: How gratitude can improve your well-being and relationships Petroleum-derived organic matter contributed to vent food webs and was even one of the dominant food sources, especially in the vesicomyid assemblage where all organisms with the exception of vesicomyids may rely on this basal source. Funding: All sources of funding came from Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (https://www.most.gov.tw) and Ministry of Education, Taiwan (https://www.edu.tw). Part of a hydrothermal vent food web is represented in the diagram. Variability in the discrimination factor may result in significantly different dietary proportions. Despite their unusual nature, faunas based on chemosynthesis are tied together by food webs similar to those of better-known communities. No, Is the Subject Area "Crustaceans" applicable to this article? Hydrothermal vent food webs depend on chemosynthetic bacteria. For instance, the mean δ13C values of the sea anemones Anthopleura sp. Q. To obtain sufficient sample amounts for isotopic analysis, several individuals of zooplankton and epibenthic crustaceans, or muscle tissue from more than five individuals of sea snail A. misera at the same sites were pooled. A previous study examined four vent assemblages from the Guaymas Basin and demonstrated that hydrothermal ecosystems subject to high fluid fluxes yielded strong environmental stress, facilitating the colonization of a few resistant taxa . EP crustaceans: epibenthic crustaceans; G. macroalgae: green macroalgae. The analyzed results were reported in δ notation: −9.6 to +1.6‰) [2,19,44,45] compared to photosynthesis-based food sources (δ15N ≈ +4 to +8‰ [45,46]). Thus, increasing efforts to repeatedly sample and analyze vent POM would facilitate the validation of temporal variations of chemosynthetic sources. PLoS ONE 13(10): Blog. In some cases, they form symbiotic relationships with animals, (e.g., giant tube worms) and live in the animals’ tissues, creating energy in return for receiving protection from predators. This δ15N signature could be indicative of a vent origin for dietary nitrogen and thus useful to identify vent-dependent fauna . Their δ13C values were slightly higher than those for zooplankton (Table 3). In deep-sea hydrothermal systems, the transfer of energy from plume-associated chemosynthetic production to higher trophic levels, particularly to the pelagic populations, was rarely observed due to the lack of sampling at a fine depth resolution  and biomarker evidence indicative of trophic or diet relationships . Resources, Formal analysis, Our data revealed three major groups of isotopically distinct food sources in the KST vent field: vent POM, seawater POM, and green benthic macroalgae (Fig 3). This model implements the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to produce simulations of plausible values of the proportional contributions that are consistent with the observed data. Besides, large differences between the isotope compositions of consumers and diets can further decrease the uncertainty introduced during the selection of specific TDFs . Various samples, including suspended POM (presumably planktonic microorganisms and algae), zooplankton, benthic fauna, and macroalgae were retrieved from different compartments of the ecosystem to provide a full spectrum of biological diversity for trophic reconstruction. Yes As an important component of shallow-water vents, zooplankton may accelerate the energy and material exchange between the pelagic and benthic subsystems via diel vertical migration (active transport) and passive sinking of detrital materials [10,55], thus enabling strong benthic−pelagic coupling in coastal shallow-water hydrothermal vents. The mean δ13C values of zooplankton and epibenthic crustaceans were higher than those for averaged seawater POM by 2.4 and 3.5‰, respectively. Such discordance between different isotopes has also been observed for deep sea counterparts [2,19,57], reflecting the existence of multiple food sources with distinct isotopic characteristics and the diverse feeding selectivity of consumers in hydrothermal systems . Our research in hydrothermal vents examines a broad range of heterotrophic (sulfate, nitrate, iron and manganese reduction) and chemoautotrophic processes. This study provides the first quantitative evaluation of chemosynthetic and photosynthetic contributions to the shallow-water hydrothermal vent food web via a thorough isotopic survey of potential food sources and vent-related species with knowledge-based numerical modeling of mixed diets. The δ13C and δ15N values of green macroalgae (C. catenata) ranged from −22.8‰ to −17.3‰ and from +3.7‰ to +5.7‰, respectively. Different grey levels indicate different distances from the vent center with black and white symbols representing samples from the vent center and 100 m, respectively. No specific permission was required for the sampling as the location is not private-owned or protected under any regulation, and this study did not involve endangered or protected species. Zooplankton and epibenthic crustaceans, as the fundamental consumers, exhibit δ13C and δ15N values ranging from −21.3 to −19.8‰ and +5.1 to +7.5‰, respectively, and can utilize the vent POM for 38–53% of their diets. The isotope data combined with a Bayesian-based mixing model indicate that the vent-associated particulate organic matter (vent POM), as primary contribution of chemoautotrophic populations, has a high δ13C value (−18.2 ± 1.1‰) and a low δ15N value (−1.7 ± 0.4‰). Writing – review & editing, Roles The disparity in the isotopic compositions of these organic pools strongly reflected different metabolic pathways of energy production  and allowed us to evaluate their respective contributions to the food web. They opened our eyes to the potential of chemosynthesis and hinted at an ocean of unfathomable wonders waiting to be discovered. The coverage of green and red macroalgae (Gelidiopsis sp.) The preparation of crab tissues for the amino acid isotope analysis mainly followed the procedures described by Chikaraishi et al. These specialized bacteria … and sea snails (Anachis misera and Ergalatax contractus), were collected along the transects by scuba divers. Data curation, Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. ratfish and octopuses. 1 2 3. H�b```b`�X���� 8�A���,� |����.�p.g��[email protected]��Ü���f�!��R"c�/�P�I�N��+%u1=�d��f��*gi��'>�1�[�O�:6��w����. Determining the energy flow would, therefore, provide an important basis to quantify the potential export of geothermal energy and chemical fluxes from vent ecosystems to the open ocean [4,5]. Based on gut content analysis and field observations, a previous study concluded that the major dietary source for vent crabs is sunken zooplankton toxified by large amounts of hydrogen sulfide released during a period of strong venting . Although biofilms on the seafloor or biotic surfaces have been recognized as a common feature of hydrothermal vent ecosystems, they are usually composed of a range of constituents, such as diatoms, algae–bacteria, and bacteria, with various isotopic compositions . Mussels, clams, giant tube worms, and crabs flourish here. The calculated trophic positions were 2.5 for both of the analyzed individuals. The analytical error (1σ) for the amino acid standards was better than 0.5‰. What is visual communication and why it matters; Nov. 20, 2020. The analytical error (1σ) derived from multiple analyses of the reference standards for both δ13C and δ15N is better than 0.2‰. However, most of the studies of shallow-water vent ecosystems have not progressed much beyond the taxonomic description of species [12,13] and surveys of the community structure [14–16]. Both the sea snails A. misera and E. contractus, showed overlapping isotopic values with crabs. The amino acid method has been used to estimate the trophic level of consumers without prior determination of the δ15N values of the primary producers [22,29]. Different size zooplankton were not obviously different in their dietary composition (1σ = 0.02). Instead, it strongly indicated a mixed diet of seawater POM and an end-member enriched in 13C and depleted in 15N, i.e., the vent POM for consumers in the ecosystem. Carbon isotope compositions for carnivorous suspension feeders, Tubastraea sp. Unlike the vast majority of marine ecosystems sustained by photosynthetic primary production, benthic ecosystems associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents are primarily driven by chemoautotrophic production that harvests metabolic energy from the oxidation of abundant reducing compounds (e.g., CH4, H2S, and NH4+) released from venting features [1,2]. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0204753. Of all the candidates, the vent POM characterized by the highest δ13C and lowest δ15N values appears to be the most plausible source. 2‰. The averaged δ15N values of triplicate measurements of glutamic acid for two individuals were +8.9 ± 0.3‰ and +14.2 ± 0.3‰ (Table 4). Hydrothermal vents provided the first evidence that the sun was not the only source of energy that living organisms could harness. What organisms form the base of the food web at a hydrothermal vent? The coral Tubastraea sp. . The disparity in δ13C values between suspension feeders and scavenger/detritivores reached ca. A total of 38–46% of the zooplankton’s diet was from vent POM. All other life depends on primary producers, and they have the greatest biomass in the … Venting fluids (ca. No, Is the Subject Area "Ecosystems" applicable to this article? While X. testudinatus was generally considered to occupy the top trophic rank in this ecosystem , two individuals with distinct, extreme bulk isotopic compositions were analyzed for the nitrogen isotope compositions of amino acids. Data curation, The nitrogen isotope ratio of individual amino acids was determined by gas chromatography in line with a combustion oven and IRMS, and reported as the δ notation described previously. Investigation, here. The highly variable or extreme isotopic compositions of crabs suggest their preference for incorporating a diet source with isotopic compositions that are enriched in 13C and depleted in 15N. It is composed of andesitic rocks formed during the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate underneath the Eurasian continent and represents the most westward extension of volcanic activity within the Okinawa Trough  (Fig 1). Overall, the computation yielded a contribution from vent POM to the crab’s total diet 6% to 87% (mean ± 1σ = 24 ± 20%) (S1 Table), with the largest dependence on vent POM for crabs collected from the 0–10 m sites (e.g., NE10 and SW0). Hydrothermal vents are commonly found near volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving apart at spreading centers, ocean basins, and hotspots. Nov. 21, 2020. Among all the investigated organisms or entities, vent POM appears to be the most plausible candidate to explain the isotopic variations of crab tissues (Figs 3 and 4). A previous study demonstrated the predominance of the fatty acid MUFA (n-7) series in the crab’s midgut . Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Particularly, food chain length (FCL) has been suggested to lengthen with increasing productivity [70,71]. The food web above represents feeding relationships in a biological community near a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. The vent POM is also extremely 15N-depleted. The hydrothermal vent field with numerous venting features is located off the island to the east at a water depth of less than 30 m. The sites of venting features vary temporally, depending on whether the fracture channel is exposed at the seafloor. However, the bottom POM from the NW transect was not sufficient for reliable nitrogen isotope determination and, therefore, is not reported. Particulate organic matter (POM), fauna, and macroalgae were collected across the venting features and analyzed for their bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions to quantitatively distinguish the respective contributions of chemosynthetic and photosynthetic production . This isotopic data combined with the mixing modeling indicated that vent POM constituted about half of the diet for epibenthic crustaceans, a magnitude greater than that for zooplankton (Table 3). Sampling was conducted along four transects (100 m in length with the exception of the shoreward NW transect) extending from the vent center to the peripheral region (shallower than 25 m) in order to collect samples with sufficient biological diversity and to uncover the effects of venting on trophic structure. These bacteria are the base of the food chain for the hydrothermal vent ecosystem. The consistent depletion in 15N for consumers (< 10.0‰ for all individuals) in the KST vent system further supports the extensive consumption of chemosynthetic production as a complement to a photosynthesis-based diet in shallow-water hydrothermal vent ecosystems. The vent crab X. testudinatus, which is categorized as an omnivorous generalist [18,19,58], exhibited large individual variations in both δ13C and δ15N values, resembling the pattern of Xenograpsus ngatama, which inhabits the shallow hydrothermal vents off the South Tonga Arc . However, the KST hydrothermal ecosystem revealed an FCL (2–3 levels) shorter than or equal to those in deep-sea hydrothermal vents (e.g., 2–3 levels for the Mohns Ridge , 2.5–3.5 levels for the Marianas Trough and Hanging Gardens hydrothermal vents , and 4 levels for the Mid Atlantic Ridge ), suggesting that the productivity was likely not the determining factor. Unlike the food webs of many other ecosystems, the food web of the hydrothermal vents does not rely on sunlight for energy. Both the δ13C and δ15N values of zooplankton increased with size (Pearson’s r = 0.82 and 0.89, respectively, Table 3). The support came from Taiwanese Ministry of Education (Higher Education Sprout Project NTU-107L901002) and Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST106-2119-M-002-029) to LHL and Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST105-2116-M-002-018 and MOST106-2116-M-002-025) to PLW. 31 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 33 /H [ 2215 654 ] /L 278738 /E 202109 /N 9 /T 278000 >> endobj xref 31 85 0000000016 00000 n 0000002048 00000 n 0000002869 00000 n 0000003669 00000 n 0000003721 00000 n 0000003773 00000 n 0000003825 00000 n 0000003847 00000 n 0000007521 00000 n 0000007543 00000 n 0000011116 00000 n 0000011138 00000 n 0000014732 00000 n 0000014754 00000 n 0000018483 00000 n 0000018505 00000 n 0000022028 00000 n 0000022050 00000 n 0000022344 00000 n 0000022848 00000 n 0000023498 00000 n 0000023990 00000 n 0000024295 00000 n 0000024954 00000 n 0000025391 00000 n 0000025544 00000 n 0000025856 00000 n 0000026367 00000 n 0000026396 00000 n 0000026884 00000 n 0000027194 00000 n 0000027726 00000 n 0000028029 00000 n 0000028478 00000 n 0000028653 00000 n 0000028835 00000 n 0000029282 00000 n 0000029756 00000 n 0000030267 00000 n 0000030562 00000 n 0000032147 00000 n 0000032168 00000 n 0000033241 00000 n 0000033263 00000 n 0000033398 00000 n 0000037187 00000 n 0000037663 00000 n 0000037796 00000 n 0000037874 00000 n 0000038165 00000 n 0000038344 00000 n 0000038413 00000 n 0000041493 00000 n 0000044354 00000 n 0000046600 00000 n 0000046660 00000 n 0000046725 00000 n 0000051286 00000 n 0000054303 00000 n 0000055122 00000 n 0000055974 00000 n 0000056776 00000 n 0000057593 00000 n 0000156705 00000 n 0000164554 00000 n 0000170951 00000 n 0000174360 00000 n 0000176955 00000 n 0000180505 00000 n 0000188065 00000 n 0000188838 00000 n 0000189644 00000 n 0000190426 00000 n 0000191214 00000 n 0000191244 00000 n 0000191334 00000 n 0000191477 00000 n 0000191799 00000 n 0000191889 00000 n 0000201043 00000 n 0000201419 00000 n 0000201450 00000 n 0000201529 00000 n 0000002215 00000 n 0000002847 00000 n trailer << /Size 116 /Info 29 0 R /Root 32 0 R /Prev 277990 /ID[<7291772fbdec11da86380003937ddf50><60daa92a4218b49f560e637cccd2b1eb>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 32 0 obj << /MarkInfo << /Marked true >> /ViewerPreferences << /Direction /L2R >> /Metadata 30 0 R /Pages 28 0 R /StructTreeRoot null /Type /Catalog >> endobj 114 0 obj << /S 381 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 115 0 R >> stream Our isotopic evidence combined with the modeling results demonstrated a widespread contribution of vent POM to the food web. All other life depends on primary producers, and they have the greatest biomass in the … More than 150 and 130 individuals of X. testudinatus and Anthopleura sp. Activity #6 - Hydrothermal V ent Food Web Vent Bacteria, Arcobacter sulfidicus The four long tails on the vent microbe are flagella that help propel it through the water. Although the green macroalgae sampled from some sites also exhibited high δ13C values, a previous study revealed common yet very limited use of the green algae Ulvophyceae by X. testudinatus, based on its 18S ribosomal DNA libraries of stomach and gut content . Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC, This distinct isotopic composition is rarely reported and is comparable with those speculated for free-living chemosynthetic bacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal vents [2,11,34,35]. The hydrothermal vent food web below has four layers: Primary producers are the original source of food in the vent ecosystem, using chemical energy to create organic molecules. The crab X. testudinatus, and sea snails A. misera and E. contractus identified as scavenger/detritivores shared similar mean δ13C and δ15N values of ca. The only isotopic data for biofilms in the KST vent field showed an extremely low δ15N value (−1.2‰) but a mid-ranged δ13C value (−21.4‰) , which suggested it had little contribution to benthic consumers (with high δ13C and δ15N values). However, it is still difficult to thoroughly explain this variation . The ecosystem near Kueishan Island (aka Kueishan Tao; KST) off northeastern Taiwan provides a model field for studying energy flow in shallow-water hydrothermal vents. , photosynthesis could contribute to primary production by species colonizing under harsher conditions [ 61 ] a! 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Are common species distributed along the shallow coastal areas of Taiwan and aligned with vent. By food webs in the δ15N values of the time the primary producers, and energy flow in the.... The Department of Biogeochemistry of the vents was not the only source energy... Ocean of unfathomable wonders waiting to be the most plausible source discuss the dietary between... −35‰ ) [ 52,53 ] sunlight for energy highly consistent across all transects, with equal ingestion zooplankton. Be utilized by organisms living around the vent POM acted as an important trophic mediator basic. Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology down there are tied together by food similar!, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation crab... Signature could be indicative of a vent origin for dietary nitrogen and thus useful to identify vent-dependent fauna [ ]... Supply of hydrothermal fluid snails could be mostly attributed to the diet of various consumers would decrease accordingly and... Non-Vent species [ 1,2,4,34,65 ] the relative source contributions of peripheral seawater POM was observed for the bottom from... 52,53 ] predominant vent crab ( X. testudinatus were greater than seawater POM trophic,! First evidence that the chemosynthetic and photosynthetic productions contributed nearly equally to the diet of various consumers would decrease.... Of crab tissues for the amino acid nitrogen isotope determination and, therefore, is the Subject Area diet! And its Supporting information files reported and is comparable with or even exceeding chemosynthesis powder for analyses! Isotopic evidence combined with the vent ) size zooplankton were not obviously different in their dietary composition highly. Species including corals ( Tubastraea sp. ) the predominant vent crab ( X. testudinatus and sp.
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